A bone marrow transplant is a medical procedures performed by transplanting blood stem cells, i.e. replacing the destroyed and damaged stem cells with the healthy cells to help your body make enough platelets, white blood cells, or red blood cells to avoid infections, bleeding disorders, or anemia. In this procedure the bone marrow that has been damaged or destroyed are replaced by disease, infection, or chemotherapy. This procedure involves transplanting blood stem cells, which move to the bone marrow to further produce new blood cells and promote growth of new marrow.
A bone marrow transplant is usually performed when the patients are suffering from conditions like a plastic anaemia, leukaemia, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, or thalassemia major.
Usually, doctors recommend one of the following three types of bone marrow transplantations –
1. An Auto Logos Transplant: In this procedure the doctor uses patient’s own stem cells.
2. A Syngeneic Transplant: In this procedure, if the patient has an identical twin his/her stem cells can be used.
3. An Allogeneic Transplant: This procedure involves the use of cells from a donor. The donor must be a close genetic match; the donor can also be a close relative or someone with absolutely no connection with the patient, as long as the genetic makeup of the stem cells matches those of the patient’s.
Before your transplant, the Doctor will recommend a few tests to discover what type of bone marrow cells patient need. The patient might also undergo radiation or chemotherapy to kill off all cancer cells or marrow cells before getting the new stem cells. Before your treatment, the health care team will explain the patient about the transplant process and answer all the questions. The pre-transplant period is characterized by identification of the appropriate type of transplant that will be done and, if necessary, finding an appropriate donor for the transplant.
During the procedure of bone marrow transplant the patient is given general anesthesia before performing the actual treatment to allow the surgeon to easily and painlessly extract the cells by inserting needles in the region around his or her pelvic bone. The surgeon will then tests the cells to make sure they are clean and healthy, after which they are preserved until the scheduled transplant.
When the patient is ready for the transplant. The procedure for transplanting the healthy cells is performed which is similar to a blood transfusion. If the patient has an allogeneic transplant, bone marrow cells will be harvested from the donor a day or two before the procedure. If the patient’s own cells will be used, they’ll be retrieved from the stem cell bank.
Cells are collected in two ways:
During a bone marrow harvest, cells will be collected from both hipbones through a needle. Patient will be given anesthesia for this procedure, meaning that the patient will be asleep and free of any pain.
The entire BMT procedure takes around 3 to 4 hours from the time the stem cells enter the body and reach and bone marrow to start producing healthy cells. This process is called engraftment.
The success rate of a bone marrow transplant generally depends on how closely the donor and recipient genetically match and in some cases; it can be very difficult to find a good match among unrelated donors. After completion of the procedure the state of engraftment will be regularly monitored by the doctor. It generally takes between 10 and 28 days to finish after the initial transplant. The very first sign of engraftment is a rising white blood cell count. This will let help the patient to know that the transplant is starting to make new blood cells. Typical recovery time for this treatment is about three months. However, it may take about a year for you to recover fully.
There are fewer risks associated with this treatment because only a small amount of the bone marrow is removed from the body. The usual symptoms that the patient may experience after the treatment might include stiffness, slight pain, and weakness for a few days.
Complications might be mild or very serious. The major complications that are associated with the treatment may include:
In some of the many cases, graft-versus-host diseases can become a long-lasting condition. In this case, you may get –
The success rate of bone marrow treatment in India depends on factors such as the age of the patient, overall health of the patient and how it affects the disease. Although the process is very effective in doing away with the distress of the patient, it is very expensive. The Approximate Cost of the bone marrow treatment in India is about $14,000 – $30,000 and it takes about 14-21 Days to get done with the treatment. The transplant process can be emotionally taxing. Talking to a professional can help you through the whole process. Get in touch with India medical center our doctors will help you find out the bone marrow transplant cost in India today!